Our experience working with both medium-sized and large multinationals is that most organizations fall into one of five maturity stages in impact measurement:

Elementary Level:
Compliance-driven, cost-based social investment measurement, silo approach, performed as a once off annually, staff level function

Basic Level:
Compliance-driven, cost-based and project managed, limited measurement, no reporting, silo approach, performed as a once-off annually, staff-level function

Objective Level:
Beyond compliance, beneficiary-driven, project management and progress reporting, centralized and decentralized approach, quarterly progress reporting, middle management function

Managerial Level:
Issue-driven, company-positioning-driven, change and benefit measurement criteria, some functional and business unit collaboration, quarterly progress reporting, senior management function

Strategic Level:
Investment-Impact driven, social license and reputation based, impact measurement more critical than expenditure measures, overall corporate view and focus, planning and targeting of social investment strategy cascaded from board, executive and business unit management levels results integrated into the sustainability and risk matrices, measurement ongoing and reporting beyond the compliance cycle.